Questions about the day’s months and the Sabbath
By James Robertson
Ok, now where did we get the names of the days and the names of the months?
English French "Planet"
1 Sunday dimanche (Sun)
2 Monday lundi Moon
3 Tuesday mardi Mars
4 Wednesday mercredi Mercury
5 Thursday jeudi Jupiter
6 Friday vendredi Venus
7 Saturday samedi Saturn
This in itself is misleading in that these are the names of Roman and Greek Ba’als.
1 Even though Sunday or Suns Day was established by Constantine in the 4th century. It was originally called “dies Solis” or the Day of the Sun and Constantine proclaimed it as “Sol Invictus Mithras.”
2 Monday: is the day of the moon, Roman “Lunae Dies.” The moon is identified with Artemis or the goddess Diana. The RCC equates this to their goddess Mary.
3 Tuesday: Associated with the Roman deity Mars or as in the French Mardi.
4 Wednesday: The Romans declared this day as “Mercuri dies” or Mercury day.
5 Thursday: Comes from the Romans day of Jupiter originally was called in Greek IU PITAR meaning “Father Zeus.”
6 Friday: Greeks honored Aphrodite on this day and the Romans Venus or Astarte. This was also the day that the ancient Egyptians honored ISIS depicting the symbol of a fish on her head, or as it was commonly known by the Greeks ICTUS.
7 Saturday: This day the Romans honored Saturn their deity of agriculture. This name was also used by the Romans at the end of the year or the Winter Solstice known as Saturnalia from the 12th month from the middle of the month to the end of the month, usually from 25th to the 30th. It’s the same time that the Christians worship the birth of their deity of Iesous Christos.
As you will notice that the days of the months we use will be as the days of the week, from Roman and Greek deities.
Up until 46 BCE there were only ten months. Not that there were only, however, the Romans only had or named 10 months. They figured out that when the seasons were coming in the wrong time…sic.. that they figured that they needed two more months to make the seasons where they were correct. SO:
MARCH: now this was the first month, named for the deity MARS. According to history books that when the spring would take hold the armies would March out to war.
APRIL: The month of Venus or as it was called Aprillis, which was from Aphrodite. According to history this month was when the earth was impregnated or fertilized on the SUNS-DAY after the Vernal Equinox or better known as EASTER, from the deity Astarte who was the deity of fertility.
MAY: from the deity MAIA, also a fertility deity.
JUNE: from JUNO the female Roman deity who was the wife of Jupiter.
JULY: well this month was named for the Roman Emperor Julius Caesar. He was called the son of the sun.
AUGUST: again this month was named for the Roman Emperor August Caesar, in Latin this means venerable, or magnificent.
SEPTEMBER: This is Latin for SEVEN septem.
OCTOBER: This is Latin for EIGHT octo.
NOVENMER: This is Latin for NINE novem.
DECEMBER: Again Latin for TEN decem.
The Romans had ten months but there are twelve moon cycles each year. So, in 46 CE or there about Julius Caesar had Sosigenes to correct the calendar adding what we call January and February. January named for Janus the Roman deity of doorways, gates and arches. February was named for the female deity Februa.
The original Roman calendar is believed to have been a lunar calendar, which may have been based on one of the Greek lunar calendars. As the time between new moons averages 29.5 days, its months would have been either hollow (29 days) or full (30 days). Full months were considered powerful and therefore auspicious; hollow months were unlucky. Roman traditions claimed that the calendar was invented by Romulus, the founder of Rome about 753 BC.
Unlike our dates, which are numbered sequentially from the beginning of the month, the Romans counted backwards from three fixed points - the Nones, the Ides, and the Kalends of the following month. This system originated in the practice of "calling" the new month when the lunar crescent was first observed in the west after sunset. From the shape and orientation of the new moon the number of days remaining to the nones would be proclaimed. The earliest known version contained ten months, and started at the vernal equinox; however, the months by this time were no longer 'lunar':
* Martius (31 days)
* Aprilis (30 days)
* Maius (31 days)
* Iunius (30 days)
* Quintilis (31 days)
* Sextilis (30 days)
* September (30 days)
* October (31 days)
* November (30 days) and
* December (30 days)
The calendar year lasted 304 days and there were about 61 days of winter that did not fall within the calendar.
Romans considered odd numbers to be lucky and even numbers unlucky. This superstition influenced the first reform of the calendar, which was attributed to Numa Pompilius, the second of the seven traditional Kings of Rome. He is said to have added January and February to the end of the calendar around 713 BC. Twelve lunar months, each averaging a little over 29.53 days, come to 354.37 days. To make his new months, Numa added 50 days to the year. He wanted each month and also the year to have an odd number of days, but since this was not possible he brought the length of the calendar year up to 355 days and took one day from each 30-day month, giving a total 57 days to share between January and February. February was made hollow with 28 days and all the other months were full:
* Martius (31 days)
* Aprilis (29 days)
* Maius (31 days)
* Iunius (29 days)
* Quintilis (31 days)
* Sextilis (29 days)
* September (29 days)
* October (31 days)
* November (29 days)
* December (29 days)
* Ianuarius (29 days)
* Februarius (28 days)
February was split into two parts, each with an odd number of days. The first part ended with the Terminalia on the 23rd; this was considered the end of the religious year. The five remaining days formed the second part.
The later months are named based on their position in the original calendar — Quintilis comes from quinque meaning five, Sextilis from sex meaning six, September from septem meaning seven, October from octo meaning eight, November from novem meaning nine, December from decem meaning ten. These names were retained even though Quintilis, Sextilis, September, October, November, and December became, respectively, the seventh, eighth, ninth, tenth, eleventh, and twelfth months of the calendar in 153 BC. Quintilis and Sextilis were later renamed July and August in honour of Julius Caesar and Augustus.
The nones are related to the nundinae, the market days which fell on the eighth day of the eight-day market week used by the Romans. They are so called because in the Roman system of inclusive counting they came every nine days. From the nones to the ides there was exactly one market week. From the ides to the end of the month (except in February) there were exactly two market weeks. Hence the mnemonic
"March, May, July, October,
These are they,
Make nones the seventh,
Ides the fifteenth day."
In all other months, nones were on the fifth and ides on the thirteenth. The preceding day was Pridie, e.g. Prid. Id. Mart. = 14 March. Other days were ante diem, ("days before"), e.g. a.d. III Kal. Oct. = 28 September. Note that the inclusive system of counting meant that the second day before the fixed point did not exist (because it was the same as Pridie). Some other examples: a.d. IV Non. Jan. = 2 January; a.d. VI Non. Mai. = 2 May; a.d. VIII Id. Apr. = 6 April; a.d. VIII Id. Oct. = 8 Oct; a.d. XVII Kal. Nov. = 16 October; a.d. XVII Kal. Dec. = 14 November.
In order to keep the calendar year roughly aligned with the solar year, a leap month, the Mensis Intercalaris, sometimes also known as Mercedonius or Mercedinus, was added from time to time in between the two parts of February. This caused the second part of February to be incorporated in the intercalary month as its last five days. There was thus no change either in their dates or the festivals observed on them. The resulting year was either 377 or 378 days long, depending on whether Intercalaris began on the day after the Terminalia or the second day after the Terminalia. Intercalaris had 27 days. Its nones were on the fifth and its ides on the thirteenth as usual; the next following day was a.d. XV Kal. Mart.
The decision to insert the intercalary month was the responsibility of the pontifex maximus. On average, this happened roughly in alternate years.
The system of aligning the year through intercalary months broke down at least twice. The first time was during and after the Second Punic War. It led to the reform of the Lex Acilia in 191 BC. The details of this reform are unclear, but it appears to have successfully regulated intercalation for over a century. The second breakdown was in the middle of the first century BC. This breakdown may have been related to the increasingly chaotic and adversarial nature of Roman politics at the time. The position of pontifex maximus was not a full-time job; it was held by a member of the Roman elite, who would almost invariably be involved in the machinations of Roman politics. Because a Roman calendar year defined the term of office of elected Roman magistrates, a pontifex maximus would have reason to lengthen a year in which he or his allies were in power, or not to lengthen a year in which his political opponents held office. It was while Julius Caesar was pontifex maximus that the calendar was overhauled, with the result being the Julian calendar. The calendar reforms were completed during the reign of his successor Augustus.
The three reference dates were probably declared publicly when the lunar conditions were observed. After the reforms of Numa Pompilius, they occurred on fixed days.
* Kalendae (Kalends) — first day of the month, from which the word "calendar" is derived; thought to have originally been the day of the new moon. Interest on debt was due on Kalends.
* Nonae (Nones) — thought to have originally been the day of the half moon.
* Idūs (Ides) — thought to have originally been the day of the full moon. The Romans considered this an auspicious day in their calendar. The word ides comes from Latin, meaning "half division" (of a month).
Some dates are sometimes known by the name of a festival that occurred on them, or shortly afterwards. Such dates are known for the Feralia, Quirinalia and the Terminalia (though not yet for the Lupercalia). These dates are all after the Ides of February, which suggests that they are connected with resolving an ambiguity that could arise in intercalary years: dates of the form a.d. [N] Kal. Mart. were dates in late February in regular years but were a month later in intercalary years. However, it is much debated whether there was a fixed rule for using festival-based dates. It has been suggested that dates like a.d. X Terminalia (known from an inscription in 94 B.C.) indicated that the year was intercalary, that it was not intercalary, or that it could be intercalary.
When Julius Caesar added a day to September, he added it to the end of the month, so as not to disturb the dates of religious festivals in September, but the effect was to increase the count of the day that immediately followed the Ides:
a.d. XVIII Kal. Oct. = 18 days before the Kalends of October = 14 September
As a result, the position of all the following dates in September got bumped up by one day. This has some unexpected effects. For example, the emperor Augustus was born on 23 September 63 BC. In the pre-Julian calendar this is 8 days before the Kalends of October (or, in Roman style, a.d. VIII Kal. Oct.), but in the Julian calendar it is 9 days (a.d. IX Kal. Oct.). Because of this ambiguity, his birthday was sometimes celebrated on both dates, i.e. (for us) on both 23 and 24 September.
A History of the Months
Lawrence A. Crowl
The original Roman year had 10 named months Martius "March", Aprilis "April", Maius "May", Junius "June", Quintilis "July", Sextilis "August", September "September", October "October", November "November", December "December", and probably two unnamed months in the dead of winter when not much happened in agriculture. The year began with Martius "March". Numa Pompilius, the second king of Rome circa 700 BC, added the two months Januarius "January" and Februarius "February". He also moved the beginning of the year from Marius to Januarius and changed the number of days in several months to be odd, a lucky number. After Februarius there was occasionally an additional month of Intercalaris "intercalendar". This is the origin of the leap-year day being in February. In 46 BC, Julius Caesar reformed the Roman calendar (hence the Julian calendar) changing the number of days in many months and removing Intercalaris.
January -- Janus's month
Middle English Januarie
Latin Januarius "of Janus"
Latin Janu(s) "Janus" + -arius "ary (pertaining to)"
Latin Januarius mensis "month of Janus"
Janus is the Roman god of gates and doorways, depicted with two faces looking in opposite directions. His festival month is January.
Januarius had 29 days, until Julius when it became 31 days long.
February -- month of Februa
Middle English Februarius
Latin Februarius "of Februa"
Latin Februa(s) "Februa" + -arius "ary (pertaining to)"
Latin Februarius mensis "month of Februa"
Latin dies februatus "day of purification"
Februarius had 28 days, until circa 450 BC when it had 23 or 24 days on some of every second year, until Julius when it had 29 days on every fourth year and 28 days otherwise.
Februa is the Roman festival of purification, held on February fifteenth. It is possibly of Sabine origin.
Intercalaris -- inter-calendar month
Latin Intercalaris "inter-calendar"
Latin Mercedonius (popular name) "?"
Intercalaris had 27 days until the month was abolished by Julius.
March -- Mars' month
Middle English March(e)
Old English Martius
Latin Martius "of Mars"
Latin Marti(s) "Mars" + -us (adj. suffix)
Latin Martius mensis "month of Mars"
Martius has always had 31 days.
March was the original beginning of the year, and the time for the resumption of war.
Mars is the Roman god of war. He is identified with the Greek god Ares.
April -- Aphrodite's month
Old English April(is)
Greek Aphro, short for Aphrodite.
Aprilis had 30 days, until Numa when it had 29 days, until Julius when it became 30 days long.
Aphrodite is the Greek goddess of love and beauty. She is identified with the Roman goddess Venus.
May -- Maia's month
Old French Mai
Old English Maius
Latin Maius "of Maia"
Latin Maius mensis "month of Maia"
Maius has always had 31 days.
Maia (meaning "the great one") is the Italic goddess of spring, the daughter of Faunus, and wife of Vulcan.
June -- Juno's month
Middle English jun(e)
Old French juin
Old English junius
Latin Junius "of Juno"
Latin Junius mensis "month of Juno"
Junius had 30 days, until Numa when it had 29 days, until Julius when it became 30 days long.
Juno is the principle goddess of the Roman Pantheon. She is the goddess of marriage and the well-being of women. She is the wife and sister of Jupiter. She is identified with the Greek goddess Hera.
July -- Julius Caesar's month
Middle English Julie
Latin Julius "Julius"
Latin Julius mensis "month of Julius"
Latin quintilis mensis "fifth month"
Quintilis (and later Julius) has always had 31 days.
Julius Caesar reformed the Roman calendar (hence the Julian calendar) in 46 BC. In the process, he renamed this month after himself.
August -- Augustus Caesar's month
Latin Augustus "Augustus"
Latin Augustus mensis "month of Augustus"
Latin sextilis mensis "sixth month"
Sextilis had 30 days, until Numa when it had 29 days, until Julius when it became 31 days long.
Augustus Caesar clarified and completed the calendar reform of Julius Caesar. In the process, he also renamed this month after himself.
September -- the seventh month
Middle English septembre
Latin septem "seven" + -ber (adj. suffix)
Latin september mensis "seventh month"
September had 30 days, until Numa when it had 29 days, until Julius when it became 30 days long.
October -- the eighth month
Middle English octobre
Latin octo "eight" + -ber (adj. suffix)
Latin october mensis "eighth month"
October has always had 31 days.
November -- the nineth month
Middle English Novembre
Latin Novembris mensis "nineth month"
Novembris had 30 days, until Numa when it had 29 days, until Julius when it became 30 days long.
December -- the tenth month
Middle English decembre
Old French decembre
Latin december "tenth month"
Latin decem "ten" + -ber (adj. suffix)
December had 30 days, until Numa when it had 29 days, until Julius when it became 31 days long.
The current definition of the Jewish calendar is generally said to have been set down by the Sanhedrin president Hillel II in approximately C.E. 359. The original details of his calendar are, however, uncertain.
The Jewish calendar is used for religious purposes by Jews all over the world, and it is the official calendar of Israel.
The Jewish calendar is a combined solar/lunar calendar, in that it strives to have its years coincide with the tropical year and its months coincide with the synodic months. This is a complicated goal, and the rules for the Jewish calendar are correspondingly fascinating.
Lunisolar calendars use months to approximate the tropical year. Examples are the Jewish and Chinese calendars. Since 12 months are about 11 days shorter than the tropical year, a leap month (also called intercalary month) is inserted about every third year to keep the calendar in tune with the seasons. The big question is how to do this. A simple method is to just base it on nature. In ancient Israel, the religious leaders would determine the date for Passover each spring by seeing if the roads were dry enough for the pilgrims and if the lambs were ready for slaughter. If not, they would add one more month.
An ordinary (non-leap) year has 353, 354, or 355 days. A leap year has 383, 384, or 385 days. The three lengths of the years are termed, "deficient," "regular," and "complete," respectively.
An ordinary year has 12 months, a leap year has 13 months.
Every month starts (approximately) on the day of a new moon.
The months and their lengths are:
Name Length in a deficient year Length in a regular year Length in a complete year
Tishri 30 30 30
Heshvan 29 29 30
Kislev 29 30 30
Tevet 29 29 29
Shevat 30 30 30
Adar I 30 30 30
Adar II 29 29 29
Nisan 30 30 30
Iyar 29 29 29
Sivan 30 30 30
Tammuz 29 29 29
Av 30 30 30
Elul 29 29 29
Total: 353 or 383 354 or 384 355 or 385
The month Adar I is only present in leap years. In non-leap years Adar II is simply called "Adar."
Note that in a regular year the numbers 30 and 29 alternate; a complete year is created by adding a day to Heshvan, whereas a deficient year is created by removing a day from Kislev.
The alteration of 30 and 29 ensures that when the year starts with a new moon, so does each month.
When is New Year’s Day?
That depends. Jews have several different days to choose from. The most important are:
1 Tishri: Rosh HaShanah. This day is a celebration of the creation of the world and marks the start of a new calendar year.
1 Nisan: New Year for Kings. This is also the start of the religious year. Nisan is considered the first month, although it occurs 6 or 7 months after the start of the Jewish calendar year.
Exodus 12:1-2, “And יהוה spoke to Mosheh and to Aharon in the land of Mitsrayim, saying, (2) “This month is the beginning of months for you, it is the first month of the year for you.”
Exodus 13:3-4, “And Mosheh said to the people, “Remember this day in which you went out of Mitsrayim, out of the house of slavery. For by strength of hand יהוה brought you out of this place, and whatever is leavened shall not be eaten. (4) “Today you are going out, in the month Aḇiḇ.”
Now, Abib was changed in later years to the Roman-Greek name of Nisan.
FROM JEWDAISM 101:
The first day of the calendar year, Rosh Hashanah, on 1 Tishri is determined as follows:
* The new year starts on the day of the new moon that occurs about 354 days (or 384 days if the previous year was a leap year) after 1 Tishri of the previous year.
* If the new moon occurs after noon on that day, delay the new year by one day. (Because in that case the new crescent moon will not be visible until the next day.)
* If this would cause the New Year to start on a Sunday, Wednesday, or Friday, delay it by one day. (Because we want to avoid that Yom Kippur (10 Tishri) falls on a Friday or Sunday, and that Hashanah Rabba (21 Tishri) falls on a Sabbath (Saturday)).
* If two consecutive years start 356 days apart (an illegal year length), delay the start of the first year by two days.
* If two consecutive years start 382 days apart (an illegal year length), delay the start of the second year by one day.
Note: Rule 4 can only come into play if the first year was supposed to start on a Tuesday. Therefore a two day delay is used rather than a one day delay, as the year must not start on a Wednesday as stated in rule 3.
QUESTION: When is the Sabbath? ***ALSO IN CHAPTER 3***
Exodus 20:8-11, “Remember the Sabbath day, to set it apart. (9) “Six days you labour, and shall do all your work, (10) but the seventh day is a Sabbath1 of יהוה your Elohim. You do not do any work – you, nor your son, nor your daughter, nor your male servant, nor your female servant, nor your cattle, nor your stranger who is within your gates. note: 1There are other Sabbaths, but this is the weekly Sabbath. (11) “For in six days יהוה made the heavens and the earth, the sea, and all that is in them, and rested the seventh day. Therefore יהוה blessed the Sabbath day and set it apart.”
How do we know that the 7th day is actually the real 7th day?
Well, that one is hard to answer, because of the difference of calendars. We do know that the Children of Israel, (JEWS), worked the same six days and rested on the same 7th day.
If you define a "week" as a 7-day period, obviously the answer is no. But if you define a "week" as a named interval that is greater than a day and smaller than a month, the answer is yes.
The ancient Egyptians used a 10-day “week”, as did the French Revolutionary calendar.
The Maya calendar uses a 13 and a 20-day “week.”
The Soviet Union used both a 5-day and a 6-day week. In 1929-30 the USSR gradually introduced a 5-day week. Every worker had one day off every week, but there was no fixed day of rest. On 1 September 1931 this was replaced by a 6-day week with a fixed day of rest, falling on the 6th, 12th, 18th, 24th, and 30th day of each month (1 March was used instead of the 30th day of February, and the last day of months with 31 days was considered an extra working day outside the normal 6-day week cycle). A return to the normal 7-day week was decreed on 26 June 1940.
Lithuanians used a week of nine days before adopting Christianity.
As was in most cases they just picked a certain date 4 times each month to take off as a rest. As is in the Christian calendar they pick the first day of the week for rest. Some of the theologians insist that the new moon each month is the first day of the week. It is just the first day of that particular moon cycle. So, now when is the Sabbath? According to the Scriptures to us the 7th day. Many religions believe that the 7th day can be any day after you work 6 days. Again, the Children of Israel worked the same 6 days and rested on the same 7th day.
QUESTION: when did the Sabbath change from the seventh day to the first day of the week, or from Saturday to Sunday?
ANSWER: this is what I wrote four or five years ago on this subject.
Ok, now understand, I do not put any authority in the RCC nor in any of their laws and doctrine. What you are about to read can be found in Catholic archives and publications. I have purposely kept the language as is. Don’t take my word for it look them up for yourselves. I am a believer that the Scriptures are true and correct and no one can change what Hashem has decreed. So, with that in mind here are some quotes from many of the magazines and papers that can be found relating to Catholicism.
Catholicism Speaks about the Bible Sabbath and Sunday
The Roman Catholic Church--its leaders, its priests, its scholars, its writers and its teachers--here unite to tell us the truth about the Bible Sabbath (the seventh day of the week) and the Sunday (the first day of the week).
"Sunday is a Catholic institution, and its claims to observance can be defended only on Catholic principles. From beginning to end of scripture there is not a single passage that warrants the transfer of weekly public worship from the last day of the week to the first."-- Catholic Press Sydney, Australia, August 1900.
"Is there no express commandment for the observance of the first day of the week as a Sabbath, instead of the seventh day?
"None whatever. Neither Christ nor His apostles nor the first Christians celebrated [observed] the first day of the week, instead of the seventh as the Sabbath." --New York Weekly Tribune [Roman Catholic], May 24, 1900.
"Some non-Catholics object to Purgatory because there is no specific mention of it in Scripture. There is no specific mention of the word Sunday in Scripture [either]. The Sabbath is mentioned, but Sabbath means [a keeping of] Saturday. Yet the Christians of almost all denominations worship on Sunday not on Saturday. The Jews observe Saturday. Nowhere in the Bible is it stated that worship should be changed from Saturday to Sunday." --Martin J. Scott, Things Catholics are Asked About, 1927, p. 236 [Scott (1865-1954) was a Jesuit theologian and one of the foremost Catholic defenders of his time].
"Protestantism, in discarding the authority of the church has no good reasons for its Sunday theory, and ought logically to keep Saturday as the Sabbath." --John Gilmary Shea, "The Observance of Sunday and Civil Laws for its Enforcement," in The American Catholic Quarterly Review, Jan. 1883, p. 152 [Shea (1824-1892), a Catholic priest, wrote an important history of American Catholicism].
"Question: --Have you any other way of proving that the church has power to institute festivals of precept [command holidays]?
"Answer: --Had she not such power, she could not have done that in which all modem religionists agree with her.--She could not have substituted the observance of Sunday, the first day of the week, for the observance of Saturday, the seventh day, a change for which there is no Scriptural authority." --Stephen Keenan, A Doctrinal Catechism, 1846 edition, p. 176 [Keenan was a Scottish priest, whose catechism has been widely used in Roman Catholic schools and academies].
"Question: --Which is the Sabbath day?
"Answer: --Saturday is the Sabbath day.
"Question: --Why do we observe Sunday instead of Saturday?
"Answer: --We observe Sunday instead of Saturday because the Catholic Church transferred the solemnity from Saturday to Sunday." --Peter Geiermann, The Convert's Catechism of Catholic Doctrine, 1957 edition, p. 50 [Geiermann (1870-1929) received the "apostolic blessing" of pope Pius X on this book, January 26, 1910].
"Is not every Christian obliged to sanctify Sunday and to abstain on that day from unnecessary servile work? Is not the observance of this law among the most prominent of our sacred duties? But you may search the Bible from Genesis to Revelation, and you will not find a single line authorizing the sanctification of Sunday. The Scriptures enforce the religious observance of Saturday, a day which we never sanctify." --James Cardinal Gibbons, The Faith of Our Fathers, 92nd ed., rev., p. 89 [Cardinal Gibbons (1834-1921) was archbishop of Baltimore. This book was the most famous Catholic book in America a hundred years ago].
"It is well to remind the Presbyterians, Baptists, Methodists, and all other Christians, that the Bible does not support them anywhere in their observance of Sunday. Sunday is an institution of the Roman Catholic Church, and those who observe the day observe a commandment of the Catholic Church." --Priest Brady, in an address at Elizabeth, N.J. on March 17, 1903, reported in the Elizabeth, N.J. News of March 18, 1903.
"Reason and common sense demand the acceptance of one or the other of these alternatives: either Protestantism and the keeping holy of Saturday, or Catholicity and the keeping holy of Sunday. Compromise is impossible." --The Catholic Mirror, December 23, 1893 [The Mirror is a Baltimore Roman Catholic weekly newspaper].
"For ages all Christian nations looked to the Catholic Church, and, as we have seen, the various states enforced by law her ordinances as to worship and cessation of labor on Sunday. Protestantism, in discarding the authority of the Church, has no good reason for its Sunday theory, and ought logically, to keep Saturday as the Sabbath. The State in passing laws for the due Sanctification of Sunday, is unwittingly acknowledging the authority of the Catholic Church, and carrying out more or less faithfully its prescription. The Sunday as a day of the week set apart for the obligatory public worship of Almighty God is purely a creation of the Catholic Church." --John Gilmary Shea, in The American Catholic Quarterly Review, January 1883, p. 139 [Shea (1824-1892) was an important Catholic historian, of his time].
"Question: --How prove you that the Church hath power to command feasts and holy days?
"Answer: --By the very act of changing the Sabbath into Sunday, which Protestants allow of [by observing it]; and therefore they fondly contradict themselves, by keeping Sunday strictly, and breaking most other feasts commanded by the same church." --Priest Henry Tuberville, An Abridgment of the Christian Doctrine, p. 58 [In 1833, Tuberville received a papal approbation--a special Vatican approval--on this book].
"1. Is Saturday the seventh day according to the Bible and the Ten Commandments?
"I answer yes.
"2. Is Sunday the first day of the week and did the Church change the seventh day--Saturday --for Sunday, the first day?
"I answer yes.
"3. Did Christ change the day?
"I answer no! no!
"Faithfully yours, J. Cardinal Gibbons" --autographed letter photostat [Cardinal Gibbons of Baltimore was the leading advocate of Catholicism in America at the end of the last century].
"Some theologians have held that God [in the Bible] likewise directly determined the Sunday as the day of worship in the New Law, that He Himself has explicitly substituted the Sunday for the Sabbath. But this theory is now entirely abandoned. It is now commonly held that God simply gave His Catholic Church the power to set aside whatever day or days, she would deem suitable as Holy Days. The Church chose Sunday, the first day of the week, and in the course of time added other days, as holy days." --Vincent J. Kelly, Forbidden Sunday and Feast Day Occupations, 1943, p. 2 [Kelly, a Catholic priest, prepared this at Catholic University of America].
"The pope has authority and has often exercised it, to dispense with the commands of Christ . . . The pope's will stands for reason. He can dispense above the law, and of wrong make right, by correcting and changing laws." --from Pope Nicholas' time.
"Protestants . . . accept Sunday rather than Saturday as the day for public worship after the Catholic Church made the change . . . But the Protestant mind does not seem to realize that in accepting the Bible, in observing the Sunday, they are accepting the authority of the spokesman for the church, the Pope." --Our Sunday Visitor, Feb. 5, 1950 [One of the largest U.S. Roman Catholic magazines].
"Question: --What Bible authority is there for changing the Sabbath from the seventh to the first day of the week? Who gave the Pope the authority to change a command of God?
"Answer: --It was the Catholic Church which, by the authority of Jesus Christ, has transferred this rest [from the Bible Sabbath] to the Sunday. Thus the observance of Sunday by the Protestants is an homage they pay, in spite of themselves, to the authority of the Catholic Church." --Monsignor Louis Segur, Plain Talk About the Protestantism of Today, 1868, p. 213 [L.G. Segur (1820-1881) was a French Catholic prelate and apologist, and later a diplomatic and judicial official at Rome.]
"The Pope is not only the representative of Jesus Christ, but he is Jesus Christ Himself, hidden under veil of flesh." --The Catholic National, July, 1895.
When the pope is crowned, he is reminded that he is "the father of princes, and kings, and the Supreme Judge of the Universe, and on earth the Vicar of Jesus Christ our Savior, and the Governor of the world." --Ferraris, Ecclesiastical Dictionary, art. "Pope" [Lucius Ferraris (d. before 1763) was an Italian Catholic canonist of the Franciscan order and consultor of the Holy Office in Rome].
"Question: --By what authority did the Church substitute Sunday for Saturday?
"Answer: --The Church substituted Sunday for Saturday by the plenitude of that divine power which Jesus Christ bestowed upon her." --Peter F. Geiermann, The Convert's Catechism of Catholic Doctrine, 1923 edition, p. 59 [Priest Geiermann (1870-1929) was a well-known Catholic writer].
"The judicial authority will even include the power to forgive sins." --The Catholic Encyclopedia, volume 12, page 265, article. "Pope."
"Thou art the shepherd, thou art the physician, thou art the director, thou art the husbandman, finally thou art another god on earth." --Christopher Marcellus, in the fourth session of The Fifth Lateran Council, 1512, an address to the pope. Labbe and Cossart, History of the Councils, vol. 24, col. 109 [Marcellus (d. 1527) was a Catholic priest and archbishop of Corcyra. In appreciation of his many kindnesses, he was declared to be "noble lord of Venice"].
"The Catholic Church . . . by virtue of her divine mission, changed the day from Saturday to Sunday." --The Catholic Mirror, September 23, 1893 [The Mirror, a Baltimore -based Catholic weekly, was the official organ for Cardinal Gibbons].
"Question: --When Protestants do profane work [regular employment] upon Saturday, or the seventh day of the week, do they follow the Scripture as their only rule of faith--do they find this permission clearly laid down in the Sacred Volume?
"Answer: --On the contrary, they have only the authority of Catholic tradition for this practice. In profaning Saturday, they violate one of God's commandments, which He has never abrogated,--'Remember thou keep holy the Sabbath day.'
"Question: --Is the observance of Sunday, as the day of rest, a matter clearly laid down in Scripture?
"Answer: --It certainly is not; and yet all Protestants consider the observance of this particular day as essentially necessary to salvation. To say, we observe the Sunday, because Christ rose from the dead on that day is to say we act without warrant of Scripture; and we might as well [incorrectly] say, that we should rest on Thursday because Christ ascended to heaven on that day."--Priest Steven Keenan, A Doctrinal Catechism, pp. 252, 254 [The catechism of this Scottish priest is widely used in Catholic schools to instruct children into their beliefs].
"Scripture and Tradition are called the remote rule of faith, because the Catholic does not base his faith directly on these sources. The proximate rule of faith is for him the One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church, which alone has received from God the authority to interpret infallibly the doctrines He has revealed, whether these be contained in Scripture or in Tradition . . .
"If we consulted the Bible only, we should still have to keep holy the Sabbath Day, that is, Saturday."--John Laux, A Course in Religion for Catholic High Schools and Academies, 1936 edition, vol. 1, p. 51 [J.J. Laux (1878-1939) was a Catholic priest, teacher, and author of many Catholic histories as well as biographies of their saints].
"Like two sacred rivers flowing from Paradise, the Bible and divine Tradition contain the Word of God, the precious gems of revealed truths.
Though these two divine streams are in themselves, on account of their divine origin, of equal sacredness, and are both full of revealed truths, still, of the two, TRADITION is to us more clear and safe. " [full caps, theirs]--Joseph F. Di Bruno, Catholic Belief, 1884 ed., p. 45 [Di Bruno was an Italian Catholic cleric].
"Some of the truths that have been handed down to us by tradition and are not recorded in the Sacred Scriptures, are the following: That there are just seven sacraments; that there is a purgatory; that, in the New Law, Sunday, should be kept holy instead of the Sabbath; that infants should be baptized, and that there are precisely seventy-two books in the Bible [66 that are inspired, plus 6 apocryphal] " --Francis J. Butler, Holy Family Catechism, No. 3, p. 63 [Butler (1859 - ?) was a Catholic priest of Boston and an author of a series of catechisms].
"It is worthwhile to remember that this observance of Sunday--in which after all, the only Protestant worship consists--not only has no foundation in the Bible, but it is in flagrant contradiction with its letter, which commands rest on the Sabbath, which is Saturday. It was the Catholic Church which, by the authority of Jesus Christ, has transferred this rest to the Sunday in remembrance of the resurrection of our Lord. Thus the observance of Sunday by the Protestants is an homage they pay, in spite of themselves, to the authority of the Catholic Church." --Monsignor Louis Segur, Plain Talk About the Protestantism of Today, p. 213 [L.G. Segur (1820-1881), a French prelate, later was appointed as a diplomatic and judicial official in Rome].
"All the names which in the Scriptures are applied to Christ, by virtue of which it is established that He is over the church, all the same names are applied to the pope." --Robert Cardinal Bellarmine, De Conciliorum Auctoritate--On the Authority of the Councils), Bk. 2, chap. 17 [Bellarmine (1542-1621), a professor and rector at the Gregorian University in Rome, is generally considered to have been one of the outstanding Jesuit instructors in the history of this organization].
On April 30, 1922, in the Vatican throne room, a throng of cardinals, bishops, priests, nuns, boys, and girls, who had all fallen on their knees in reverence of the one before them, were addressed from the throne by Pope Pius XI, who said: "You know that I am the Holy Father, the representative of God on the earth, the Vicar of Christ, which means I am God on the earth." --Pope Pius Xl, quoted in The Bulwark, October, 1922, p. 104 [Pius Xl (1857-1939) was pope from 1922-1939, and was the one who signed the Treaty of the Lateran with Mussolini in 1929, whereby Vatican City was established. He consistently backed Mussolini's policies and government until he met with military reverses] . . .
"The Pope can modify [change] the Divine Law." --Lucius Ferraris, Ecclesiastical Dictionary [Ferraris (d. before 1763) was an Italian Catholic official of the Franciscan order, highly placed in the Church].
"We define that the Holy Apostolic See and the Roman Pontiff holds the primacy over the whole world."--Philippe Labbe and Gabriel Cossart, The Most Holy Councils, vol. 13, col. 1167, on "The Council at Trent."
"The Pope is of so great dignity and so exalted that he is not a mere man, but as it were God, and the vicar of God. He is the divine monarch and supreme emperor, and king of kings. Hence the Pope is crowned with a triple crown, as king of heaven and of earth and of the lower regions." --Lucius Ferraris, Prompta Bibliotheca, vol. 6, art. "Papa II" [Ferraris (d. prior to 1763) was an Italian Catholic canonist and consultor to the Holy Office in Rome].
"We hold upon this earth the place of God Almighty."--Pope Leo XIII, in an encyclical letter dated June 20, 1894, The Great Encyclical Letters of Leo XIII, p. 304 [Leo XIII (1810-1903) was pope from 1878 until his death. He was one of the most forceful popes of the nineteenth century]
Not the Creator of the universe, in Genesis 2:1-3,--but the Catholic Church "can claim the honor of having granted man a pause to his work every seven days [!]" --S. C. Mosna, Storia della Domenica, pages 366-367 [This is a recent work of the twentieth century (1969), prepared by the author under the direction of the leading Jesuit university in the world--the Gregorian, in Rome].
"If Protestants would follow the Bible, they should worship God on the Sabbath Day. In keeping the Sunday they are following a law of the Catholic Church."--Albert Smith, Chancellor of the Archdiocese of Baltimore, replying for the Cardinal in a letter dated February 10, 1920.
The following Catholic tract was originally published in The Catholic Mirror (the magazine of Cardinal Gibbons of Baltimore), on September 2, 1893. In it, a contrast is made between the Biblical faith and practice of the Hebrews, the Seventh-day Adventists, and the other Protestant churches, in order to ridicule the usual Protestant position in regard to Sunday:
"The Israelite respects the authority of the Old Testament only, but the Adventist who is a Christian, accepts the New Testament on the same ground as the Old, viz.: an inspired record also. He finds that the Bible, his teacher is consistent in both parts; that the Redeemer, during His mortal life, never kept any other day than Saturday. The Gospels plainly evince to him this fact; while in the pages of the Acts of the Apostles, the Epistles and the Apocalypse [Revelation], not the vestige of an act canceling the Saturday arrangement [seventh-day Sabbath-keeping] can be found.
The Protestant world at its birth [as he thinks, at the time of the Sixteenth Century Reformation] found the Christian Sabbath too strongly entrenched to run counter to its existence [to oppose Sunday-keeping]; it [Protestantism] was therefore planted under the necessity of acquiescing in the arrangement, thus implying the Church's right to change the day . . . The Christian Sabbath [Sunday] is therefore to this day the acknowledged offspring of the Catholic Church, as Spouse of the Holy Ghost, without a word of remonstrance from the Protestant world."--The Christian Sabbath, 2nd ed., The Catholic Mirror, 1893, p. 31.
"All of us believe many things in regard to religion that we do not find in the Bible. For example, nowhere in the Bible do we find that Christ or the apostles changed [the day] from Saturday to Sunday. We have the commandment of God given to Moses to keep holy the Sabbath Day, that is the 7th day of the week, Saturday. Today most Christians keep Sunday because it has been revealed to us by the Church outside the Bible."-- "To Tell You The Truth," The Catholic Virginian, 22, October 3, 1947, p. 9.
"Protestants often deride the authority of Church tradition, and claim to be directed by the Bible only; yet they, too, have been guided by customs of the ancient Church, which find no warrant in the Bible, but rest on Church tradition only! A striking instance of this is the following:--The first positive command in the Decalogue is to 'Remember the Sabbath Day to keep it holy,' . . . But the Sabbath Day, the observance of which God commanded, was our Saturday. Yet who among either Catholics or Protestants, except a sect or two, ever keep that commandment now? None. Why is this? The Bible, which Protestants claim to obey exclusively, gives no authorization for the substitution of the first day of the week for the seventh. On what authority, therefore, have they done so? Plainly on the authority of that very Catholic Church which they abandoned, and whose traditions they condemn."--John L. Stoddard, Rebuilding a Lost Faith, p. 80 [Stoddard (1850-1931) was an agnostic writer most of his life, who later was converted to Catholicism].
"We observe Sunday instead of Saturday because the Catholic Church transferred the solemnity from Saturday to Sunday." --Peter Geiermann, CSSR, A Doctrinal Catechism, 1957 edition, p. 50 [Geiermann (1870-1929) received a papal approbation from the Vatican on his book on January 25, 1910].
"Question: What is the Third Commandment? [the fourth in Protestant Bibles, because the Catholic Church took out the Second Commandment--Exodus 20:4-6]
"Answer: The Third Commandment is: Remember that thou keep holy the Sabbath day.
"Question: Which is the Sabbath day?
"Answer: Saturday is the Sabbath day.
"Question: Why do we observe Sunday instead of Saturday?
"Answer: The Catholic Church, after changing the day of rest from Saturday, the seventh day of the week, to Sunday, the first day, made the third commandment refer to Sunday as the day to be kept as the Lord's Day." --Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. 4, p. 153.
"Question: --What do we conclude from all this?
"Answer: --That Protestants have no Scripture for the measure of their day of rest,--that they abolish the observance of Saturday without warrant of Scripture,--that they substitute Sunday in its place without Scriptural authority,--consequently, that for all this, they have only traditional authority. Yet Protestants would look upon a man who would . . . keep the Saturday and profane the first day, as a victim of perdition. Hence we must conclude [from the Protestant belief of our teachings], that the Scripture, which does not teach these things clearly, does not contain all necessary truths, and, consequently, cannot be the only rule of faith."--Stephan Keenan, A Doctrinal Catechism, pp. 334-335 [Keenan was a Scottish Catholic priest, whose catechism is much used in Roman Catholic schools to instruct children and youth].
"We Catholics, then, have precisely the same authority for keeping Sunday holy instead of Saturday as we have for every other article of our creed; namely, the authority of 'the church of the living God, the pillar and ground of the truth' (1 Timothy 3:15); whereas you who are Protestants have really no authority for it whatever; for there is no authority for it in the Bible, and you will not allow that there can be authority for it anywhere else. Both you and we do, in fact, follow tradition in this matter; but we follow it, believing it to be a part of God's word, and the Catholic Church to be its divinely appointed guardian and interpreter; you follow it [the Catholic Church], denouncing it all the time as a fallible and treacherous guide, which often 'makes the commandments of God of none effect' [quoting Matt. 15:6]." --The Brotherhood at St. Paul, The Clifton Tracts, Vol. 4, tract 4, p. 15 [Roman Catholic].
"The Church changed the observance of the Sabbath to Sunday by right of the divine, infallible authority given to her by her founder, Jesus Christ. The Protestant claiming the Bible to be the only guide of faith, has no warrant for observing Sunday. In this matter the Seventh-day Adventist is the only consistent Protestant." --The Catholic Universe Bulletin, August 14, 1942, p. 4 [This is the political weekly newspaper at the Cleveland Catholic Diocese].
"By what authority did the [Catholic] Church change the observance of the Sabbath from Saturday to Sunday?
The Protestant world has been, from its infancy in the sixteenth century, in thorough accord with the Catholic Church, in keeping 'holy' not Saturday, but Sunday . . . If however, on the other hand, the latter [the Catholics] furnish arguments, incontrovertible by the great mass of Protestants, . . . [they] appealing to their common teacher, the Bible, the great body of Protestants, so far from clamoring, as they do with vigorous pertinacity for the strict keeping of Sunday, have no other resource left than the admission that they have been teaching and practicing what is Scripturally false for over three centuries, by adopting the teaching and practice of what they have always pretended to believe an apostate church, contrary to every warrant and teaching of Sacred Scripture. To add to the intensity of this Scriptural and unpardonable blunder, it involves one of the most positive and emphatic commands of God to His servant, man: 'Remember the Sabbath Day to keep it holy.' "--The Christian Sabbath [a tract for Protestants], 2nd ed., The Catholic Mirror, 1893, pp. 6-7.
"Now the Catholic Church . . . instituted, by God's authority, Sunday as the day of worship. This same Church, by the same divine authority, taught the doctrine of Purgatory . . . We have, therefore, the same authority for Purgatory as we have for Sunday."--Martin J. Scott, Things Catholics Are Asked About, 1927, p.236 [Jesuit theologian and writer].
"Question: --(a) The Bible says, 'The seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord,' and we read in your literature that it is the only Bible Sabbath there is. Will you please explain how the Sunday observance originated? (b) Do you think the Seventh-day Adventists keep the right day?
Answer: --"If you follow the Bible alone there can be no question that you are obliged to keep Saturday holy, since that is the day especially prescribed by Almighty God to be kept holy to the Lord. In keeping Sunday, non-Catholics are simply following the practice of the Catholic Church for 1800 years, a tradition, and not a Bible ordinance. What we would like to know is: Since they deny the authority of the Church, on what grounds can they base their faith of keeping Sunday. Those who keep Saturday, like the Seventh-day Adventists, unquestionably have them by the hip in this practice. And they cannot give them any sufficient answer which would satisfy an unprejudiced mind. With the Catholics there is no difficulty about the matter. For, since we deny that the Bible is the sole rule of faith, we can fall back upon the constant practice and tradition of the Church." --Francis George Lentz, The Question Box. 1900, p. 98-99 [Lentz, who died in 1917, was an Illinois Catholic priest].
"The Catholic Church, by the power our Lord gave her, changed the observance of Saturday to Sunday." --The Catholic canon, H. Cafferata, The Catechism Simply Explained, 1932 edition, p.80.
"The Catholic Church has decreed for many centuries that Christians observe this day of rest on Sunday." --Pope John XXIII, Mater et Magistra (Mother and Teacher), section 251, dated May 15, 1961 [John XXIII was pope from 1958 to 1963].
"The Church, . . . after changing the day of rest from Sabbath, or the seventh day of the week, to the first, made the Third Commandment refer to Sunday as the day to be kept holy as the Lord's Day." --The Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. 4, p. 153
[The Sabbath commandment is the fourth commandment (Ex. 20:8-11), but is reckoned as the third by Roman Catholics, because they dropped the second (that forbade image worship), and then split the tenth into two to make up the full number].
"The Catholic Church for over one thousand years before the existence of a Protestant, by virtue of her Divine mission, changed the day from Saturday to Sunday . . . But the Protestant says: 'How can I receive the teachings of an apostate Church?' How, we ask, have you managed to receive her teaching all your life, in direct opposition to your recognized teacher, the Bible, on the Sabbath question?" --The Christian Sabbath, 2nd ed., published by the Catholic Mirror of Baltimore, 1893, pp. 29-31. [The journal of James Cardinal Gibbons].
"If you follow the Bible alone there can be no question that you are obliged to keep Saturday holy, since that is the day especially prescribed by Almighty God to be kept holy to the Lord."--Priest F.G. Lentz, The Question Box, 1900, p. 98 [Lentz (d. 1917) was a Catholic priest and writer, based in the Illinois area].
The following statement comes from a tract written to the Protestants of England, by John Milner (1752-1826), the English Vicar Apostolic of the Roman Catholic Church. The entire tract is an appeal for Protestants to return fully to the Church of Rome:
"The first precept in the Bible, is that of sanctifying the seventh day: 'God blessed the SEVENTH DAY, and sanctified it.' Genesis 2:3. This precept was confirmed by God, in the Ten Commandments: 'Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy'. 'The SEVENTH DAY is the Sabbath of the Lord thy God.' [Exodus 20:8-11]. On the other hand, Christ declares that he is 'not come to destroy the law, but to fulfil it.' Matthew 5:17. He himself observed the [Seventh-day] Sabbath: 'And as his custom was, he went into the synagogue on the Sabbath day.' Luke 4:16. His disciples likewise observed it, after His death: 'They rested on the Sabbath day according to the commandment.' Luke 23:56.
"Yet, with all this weight of Scripture authority for keeping the Sabbath, or seventh day holy, Protestants, of all denominations, make this a profane day and transfer the obligation of it to the first day of the week, or the Sunday. Now what authority have they for doing this? None at all, but the unwritten Word, or Tradition of the Catholic church, which declares that the apostles made the change in honor of Christ's resurrection, and the descent of the Holy Ghost, on that day of the week."--John Milner, The End of Religious Controversy, in a Friendly Correspondence Between a Religious Society of Protestants, and a Roman Catholic Divine, "Letter 11, To James Brown, Esq," 1897, p. 89.
"Question: --What Bible authority is there for changing the Sabbath from the seventh to the first day of the week? Who gave the Pope the authority to change a command of God?
"Answer: --If the Bible is the only guide for the Christian, then the Seventh-day Adventist is right, in observing the Saturday with the Jew . . . Is it not strange that those who make the Bible their only teacher, should inconsistently follow in this matter the tradition of the Catholic Church?"--Bertrand Conway, The Question Box, 1903 ed., pp. 254-255; 1915 ed., p. 179 [Conway (1872-1959) was a Paulist father in the Catholic Church].
"The Adventists are the only body of Christians with the Bible as their teacher, who can find no warrant in its pages for the change of day from the seventh to the first . . . Reason and common sense demand the acceptance of one or the other of these alternatives: either Protestantism and the keeping holy of Saturday, or Catholicity and the keeping holy of Sunday. Compromise is impossible."--Catholic Mirror, September 2 and December 23, 1893 [The Catholic Mirror, a Baltimore journal was at this time the official organ of Cardinal Gibbons].
"Prove to me from the Bible alone that I am bound to keep Sunday holy. There is no such law in the Bible. It is a law of the Holy Catholic Church alone. The Bible says 'Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy.' The Catholic Church says, No. By my divine power I abolish the Sabbath day and command you to keep holy the first day of the week. And ho! The entire civilized world bows down in reverent obedience to the command of the Holy Catholic Church."--Priest Thomas Enright, CSSR, President of Redemptorist College, Kansas City, Mo., in a lecture at Hartford, Kansas, February 18, 1884, and printed in the Hartford Kansas Weekly Call, February 22, 1884, and the American Sentinel, a New York Roman Catholic journal in June 1893, page 173.
"Of course the Catholic Church claims that the change was her act . . . AND THE ACT IS A MARK of her ecclesiastical power."--from the office of Cardinal Gibbons, through Chancellor H.F. Thomas, November 11, 1895.
FROM: “Catechism of the Catholic Church - English Translation.”
2nd edition 1997
The Sunday obligation
2180 The precept of the Church specifies the law of the Lord more precisely: "On Sundays and other holy days of obligation the faithful are bound to participate in the Mass."117 "The precept of participating in the Mass is satisfied by assistance at a Mass which is celebrated anywhere in a Catholic rite either on the holy day or on the evening of the preceding day."118
2181 The Sunday Eucharist is the foundation and confirmation of all Christian practice. For this reason the faithful are obliged to participate in the Eucharist on days of obligation, unless excused for a serious reason (for example, illness, the care of infants) or dispensed by their own pastor.119 Those who deliberately fail in this obligation commit a grave sin.
2182 Participation in the communal celebration of the Sunday Eucharist is a testimony of belonging and of being faithful to Christ and to his Church. The faithful give witness by this to their communion in faith and charity. Together they testify to God's holiness and their hope of salvation. They strengthen one another under the guidance of the Holy Spirit.
2183 "If because of lack of a sacred minister or for other grave cause participation in the celebration of the Eucharist is impossible, it is specially recommended that the faithful take part in the Liturgy of the Word if it is celebrated in the parish church or in another sacred place according to the prescriptions of the diocesan bishop, or engage in prayer for an appropriate amount of time personally or in a family or, as occasion offers, in groups of families."120
A day of grace and rest from work
2184 Just as God "rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had done,"121 human life has a rhythm of work and rest. The institution of the Lord's Day helps everyone enjoy adequate rest and leisure to cultivate their familial, cultural, social, and religious lives.122
2185 On Sundays and other holy days of obligation, the faithful are to refrain from engaging in work or activities that hinder the worship owed to God, the joy proper to the Lord's Day, the performance of the works of mercy, and the appropriate relaxation of mind and body.123 Family needs or important social service can legitimately excuse from the obligation of Sunday rest. The faithful should see to it that legitimate excuses do not lead to habits prejudicial to religion, family life, and health.
The charity of truth seeks holy leisure- the necessity of charity accepts just work.124
2186 Those Christians who have leisure should be mindful of their brethren who have the same needs and the same rights, yet cannot rest from work because of poverty and misery. Sunday is traditionally consecrated by Christian piety to good works and humble service of the sick, the infirm, and the elderly. Christians will also sanctify Sunday by devoting time and care to their families and relatives, often difficult to do on other days of the week. Sunday is a time for reflection, silence, cultivation of the mind, and meditation which furthers the growth of the Christian interior life.
2187 Sanctifying Sundays and holy days requires a common effort. Every Christian should avoid making unnecessary demands on others that would hinder them from observing the Lord's Day. Traditional activities (sport, restaurants, etc.), and social necessities (public services, etc.), require some people to work on Sundays, but everyone should still take care to set aside sufficient time for leisure. With temperance and charity the faithful will see to it that they avoid the excesses and violence sometimes associated with popular leisure activities. In spite of economic constraints, public authorities should ensure citizens a time intended for rest and divine worship. Employers have a similar obligation toward their employees.
2188 In respecting religious liberty and the common good of all, Christians should seek recognition of Sundays and the Church's holy days as legal holidays. They have to give everyone a public example of prayer, respect, and joy and defend their traditions as a precious contribution to the spiritual life of society. If a country's legislation or other reasons require work on Sunday, the day should nevertheless be lived as the day of our deliverance which lets us share in this "festal gathering," this "assembly of the firstborn who are enrolled in heaven."125
2189 "Observe the sabbath day, to keep it holy" (Deut 5:12). "The seventh day is a sabbath of solemn rest, holy to the Lord" (Ex 31:15).
2190 The sabbath, which represented the completion of the first creation, has been replaced by Sunday which recalls the new creation inaugurated by the Resurrection of Christ.
2191 The Church celebrates the day of Christ's Resurrection on the "eighth day," Sunday, which is rightly called the Lord's Day (cf. SC 106).
2192 "Sunday . . . is to be observed as the foremost holy day of obligation in the universal Church" (CIC, can. 1246 § 1). "On Sundays and other holy days of obligation the faithful are bound to participate in the Mass" (CIC, can. 1247).
2193 "On Sundays and other holy days of obligation the faithful are bound . . . to abstain from those labors and business concerns which impede the worship to be rendered to God, the joy which is proper to the Lord's Day, or the proper relaxation of mind and body" (CIC, can. 1247).
2194 The institution of Sunday helps all "to be allowed sufficient rest and leisure to cultivate their amilial, cultural, social, and religious lives" (GS 67 § 3).
2195 Every Christian should avoid making unnecessary demands on others that would hinder them from observing the Lord's Day.
I. THE SABBATH DAY
2168 The third commandment of the Decalogue recalls the holiness of the sabbath: "The seventh day is a sabbath of solemn rest, holy to the LORD."92
2169 In speaking of the sabbath Scripture recalls creation: "For in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that is in them, and rested the seventh day; therefore the Lord blessed the sabbath day and hallowed it."93
2170 Scripture also reveals in the Lord's day a memorial of Israel's liberation from bondage in Egypt: "You shall remember that you were a servant in the land of Egypt, and the LORD your God brought you out thence with mighty hand and outstretched arm; therefore the LORD your God commanded you to keep the sabbath day."94
2171 God entrusted the sabbath to Israel to keep as a sign of the irrevocable covenant.95 The sabbath is for the Lord, holy and set apart for the praise of God, his work of creation, and his saving actions on behalf of Israel.
2172 God's action is the model for human action. If God "rested and was refreshed" on the seventh day, man too ought to "rest" and should let others, especially the poor, "be refreshed."96 The sabbath brings everyday work to a halt and provides a respite. It is a day of protest against the servitude of work and the worship of money.97
2173 The Gospel reports many incidents when Jesus was accused of violating the sabbath law. But Jesus never fails to respect the holiness of this day.98 He gives this law its authentic and authoritative interpretation: "The sabbath was made for man, not man for the sabbath."99 With compassion, Christ declares the sabbath for doing good rather than harm, for saving life rather than killing.100 The sabbath is the day of the Lord of mercies and a day to honor God.101 "The Son of Man is lord even of the sabbath."102
Commandment has been omitted and the Tenth divided into two.)
Historian William. Frederick says:
"The gentiles were an idolatrous people who worshipped the Sun, and Sunday was their most sacred day. Now in order to reach the people in this new field it seems but natural, as well as necessary, to make Sunday the rest day of the church. The church could naturally reach them better by keeping their day."
Canon Cafferata, in "The Catechism Simply Explained," p. 89, says:
"The Sabbath was Saturday, not Sunday. The Church altered the observance of the Sabbath to the observance of Sunday. Protestants must be rather puzzled by the keeping of Sunday when God distinctly said, 'Keep holy the Sabbath Day.' The word Sunday does not come anywhere in the Bible, so, without knowing it, they are obeying the authority of the Catholic Church."
15TH CENTURY SABBATH OBSERVANCE
Erasmus testifies that even as late as about 1500 these Bohemians not only kept the seventh day scrupulously, but also were called Sabbatarians." Cox, "The Literature of the Sabbath Question," Vol.2, pp.201, 202 "Truth Triumphant," p.264
(Church Council field at Bergin, August 22,1435) "The first matter concerned a keeping holy of Saturday. It had come to the earth of the archbishop that people in different places of the kingdom had ventured the keeping holy of Saturday. It is strictly forbidden-it is stated-in the Church Law, for anyone to keep or to adopt holy-days, outside of those which the pope, archbishop, or bishops appoint."
The History of the Norwegian Church under Catholicism, R. Keyser, Vol.11, p. 488.0slo: 1858
(Catholic Provincial Council at Bergin) "We are informed that some people in different districts of the kingdom, have adopted and observed Saturday-keeping. It is severely forbidden-in holy church canon - one and all to observe days excepting those which the holy Pope Archbishop, or the bishops command.
Saturday-keeping must under no circumstances be permitted hereafter further than the church canon commands. Therefore, we council all the friends of God throughout all Norway who want to be obedient towards the. holy church to let this evil of Saturday- keeping alone; and the rest we forbid under penalty of sever church punishment to keep Saturday holy." Dip. Norveg., 7, 397
(Church Conference at Oslo) It is forbidden under the same penalty to keep Saturday holy by refraining from labour." History of the Norwegian Church, p.401
Probably very few Christians are aware of the fact that what they call the 'Christian Sabbath' (Sunday) is of pagan origin. 'The first observance of Sunday that history records is in the fourth century, when Constantine issued an edict (riot requiring its religious observance, but simply abstinence from work) reading 'let all the judges and people of the town rest and all the various trades be suspended on the venerable day of the sun.' At the time of the issue of this edict, Constantine was a sun-worshipper; therefore it could have had no relation whatever to Christianity." -- HENRY M. TABER, "Faith or Fact" (preface by Robert G. Ingersoll), page 112.
I challenge any priest or minister of the Christian religion to show me the slightest authority for the religious observance of Sunday. And, if such cannot be shown by them, why is it that they are constantly preaching about Sunday as a holy day? ... The claim that Sunday takes the place of Saturday, and that because the Jews were supposed to be commanded to keep the seventh day of the week holy, therefore the first day of the week should be so kept by Christians, is so utterly absurd as to be hardly worth considering.... That Paul habitually observed and preached on the seventh day of the week, is shown in Acts 18:4 'And he reasoned in the synagogue every Sabbath' (Saturday)." --1d., pages 114, 116.
"You will tell me that Saturday was the Jewish Sabbath, but that the Christian Sabbath has been changed to Sunday. Changed! But by whom? Who has authority to change an express commandment of Almighty God? When God has spoken and said,' Thou shalt keep holy the seventh day, who shall dare to say, Nay, thou mayest work and do all manner of business on the seventh day; but thou shalt keep holy the first day in its stead'? This is a most important question, which I know not how you can answer. You are a Protestant, and you profess to go by the Bible and the bible only; and yet in so important a matter as the observance of one day in seven as a holy day, you go against the plain letter of the Bible, and put another day in the place of that day which the Bible has commanded. The command to keep holy the seventh day is one of the Ten Commandments; you believe that the other nine are still binding; who gave you authority to tamper with the fourth? If you are consistent with your own principles, if you really follow the Bible and the Bible only, you ought to be able to produce some portion of the New Testament in which this fourth commandment is expressly altered." --"The Library of Christian Doctrine," pages 3, 4.
"The first precept in the Bible is that of sanctifying the seventh day: 'God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it.' Genesis 2:3 This precept was confirmed by God in the Ten Commandments: 'Remember the Sabbath day to keep it holy. ... The seventh day is the Sabbath of the Lord thy God.' Exodus 20: 8:10. On the other hand, Christ declares that He is not come to destroy the law, but to fulfill it. (Matthew 5:17) He Himself observed the Sabbath: 'And, as His custom was, He went into the synagogue on the Sabbath day. Luke 4: 16. His disciples likewise observed it after His death: 'They ... rested the Sabbath day according to the commandment.' Luke 23:56. Yet with all this weight of Scripture authority for keeping the Sabbath or seventh day holy, Protestants of all denominations make this a profane day and transfer the obligation of it to the first day of the week, or the Sunday. Now what authority have they for doing this? None at all but the unwritten word, or tradition of the Catholic Church, which declares that the apostle made the change in honour of Christ's resurrection, and the descent of the Holy Ghost on that day of the week." JOHN MILNER, "The End of Religious Controversy," page 71.
"Sabbath means, of course, Saturday, the seventh day of the week, but the early Christians changed the observance to Sunday, to honour the day on which Christ arose from the dead. " ---FULTON OURSLER, Cosmopolitan, Sept. 1951, pages 34,35.
I do not pretend to be even an amateur scholar of the Scriptures. 1 read the Decalogue merely as an average man searching for guidance, and in the immortal 'Ten Words' I find a blueprint for the good life." --ibid. , page 33.
"Most certainly the Commandments are needed today, perhaps more than ever before. Their divine message confronts us with a profound moral challenge in an epidemic of evil; a unifying message acceptable alike to Jew, Moslem, and Christian. Who, reading the Ten in the light of history and of current events, can doubt their identity with the eternal law of nature?" - Ibid., page 124.
"The Sabbath is commanded to be kept on the seventh day. It could not be kept on any other day. To observe the first day of the week or the fourth is riot to observe the Sabbath.... It was the last day of the week, after six days of work that was to be kept holy. The observance of no other day would fulfil the law." --H. J. FLOWERS, B.A., B.D., "The Permanent Value of the Ten Commandments," page 131.
"The evaluation of Sunday, the traditionally accepted day of the resurrection of Christ, has varied greatly, throughout the centuries of the Christian Era. From time to time it has been confused with the seventh day of the week, the Sabbath. English speaking peoples have been the most consistent in perpetuating the erroneous assumption that the obligation of the fourth commandment has passed over to Sunday. In popular speech, Sunday is frequently, but erroneously, spoken of as the Sabbath." --F. M. SETZLER, Lead Curator, Department of Anthropology, Smithsonian Institute, from a letter dated Sept. 1, 1949.
He that observes the Sabbath aright holds the history of that which it celebrates to be authentic, and therefore believes in the creation of the first man. The creation of a fair abode for man in the space of six days. He believes in the primeval and absolute creation of the heavens and the earth, and, as a necessary antecedent to all this, in the Creator, who at the close of His latest creative effort, rested on the seventh day. The Sabbath thus becomes a sign by which the believers in a historical revelation are distinguished from those who have allowed these great facts to fade from their remembrance." - JAMES G. MICHY, "Commentary on the Book of Exodus," comments on Exodus 20: 8-11.
The Sabbath is one of the most important commands given to us from the Almighty. So many of the Christian churches have decided to forgo the Sabbath and turned from worship of the Almighty to worshiping only on Sunday (the first day of the week) as was proclaimed by Constantine in the 4th century C.E. Constantine called the first day both, “the Lord’s Day”, and the “Day of the Sun”, thus mixing together the concepts of sun worship and the resurrection. The church was already calling the first day of the week “the Lord’s Day” as a recognition for the day of the week when the Messiah was resurrected. Up until this decree a great number in the church continued to keep the Sabbath and the “Lord’s Day.” It was by Constantine’s authority that the legal institution of Sunday was established and, in fact, he demanded that no one heretofore was to keep any other day except Sunday as or the Lord’s Day. It is written that many Jews and Messianics died by his hand for keeping the Sabbath instead of Sunday. Sunday worship was not instituted by the Apostles as many suppose.
Early believers, having met to worship on the Sabbath, would probably pray together until the sun went down, then closing out Sabbath, they would commence with the business of the body. Today a ceremony held in synagogues called HAVDALAH closes out Sabbath at sundown and announces that work may commence. What they did on the first day of the week had nothing to do with the sun coming up on Sunday morning. Constantine decreed and enforced a view of the first day of the week in connection with the sun god, thereby “Sunsday.”
The argument is still put forward today that the Messianic Writings, (New Testament), commands Sunday observance instead of Sabbath. This of course, is preposterous as any casual reading of the New Testament will demonstrate. Neither Yahushua nor Sha'ul nor Kepha nor any writer of the New Testament so much as even implied such. It is ironic that most times the individual who tries to find a legal reason in Scripture for changing the Sabbath to Sunday is the same one who says we do not need to keep the Sabbath, because we are no longer under the Law, why then do we keep trying to write another one? If we do not need to keep the Sabbath then where is the authority in Scripture to keep Sunday?
Can we still worship on Sunday? The answer is: worship and prayer are to be encouraged DAILY, including Sunday! The issue is not on which day we should worship, but on which day should we obey Hashem to rest on His day and honor Him for creation!
Believers must make a statement to the world concerning their obedience to Scripture. Sunday veneration as a replacement of the Sabbath is blasphemy. There is no command in Scripture to honor the resurrection by honoring Sunday. To do so is to tell Hashem that you will not honor Him on Sabbath and if that be the case you cannot honor Yahushua and if you cannot honor Yahushua then you don’t have Him in your heart and if you don’t have Him in your heart then….you are not a Born Again Believer!
The seventh day Sabbath is commanded in the Scriptures, let’s take a look:
Exodus 31:13 “And you, speak to the children of Yisra’el, saying, ‘My Sabbaths you are to guard, by all means, for it is a sign between Me and you throughout your generations, to know that I, Hashem, am setting you apart.
Now, that’s a command not just a, well if you feel like it. A command is a command is a command period.
I know what you’re saying, at that time they didn’t have names of the days of the week. That is correct, it was just 1st day, 2nd day, 3rd, day, 4th day, 5th day, 6th day, 7th day. Understand this; they all used the same days. They stilled worked the same 6 days and took off the same 7th day. So, why did the Almighty have to tell them to guard the Sabbath? While they were in bondage in Mitsrayim (Egypt) they had to work seven days a week all of the time. So, why does this matter to us today?
Look at Exodus chapter 20:
Exodus 20:1-17, “And Elohim spoke all these Words, saying,
(2) “I am Hashem your Elohim, who brought you out of the land of Mitsrayim, out of the house of slavery.
(3) “You have no other mighty ones against My face.
(4) “You do not make for yourself a carved image, or any likeness of that which is in the heavens above, or which is in the earth beneath, or which is in the waters under the earth,
(5) you do not bow down to them nor serve them. For I, Hashem your Elohim am a jealous El, visiting the crookedness of the fathers on the children to the third and fourth generations of those who hate Me,
(6) but showing kindness to thousands, to those who love Me and guard My commands.
(7) “You do not bring the Name of Hashem your Elohim to naught, for Hashem does not leave the one unpunished who brings His Name to naught. (Note: or lift up, or take.)
(8) “Remember the Sabbath day, to set it apart.
(9) “Six days you labor, and shall do all your work,
(10) but the seventh day is a Sabbath of Hashem your Elohim. You do not do any work – you, nor your son, nor your daughter, nor your male servant, nor your female servant, nor your cattle, nor your stranger who is within your gates. (Note: There are other Sabbaths, but this is the weekly Sabbath).
(11) “For in six days Hashem made the heavens and the earth, the sea, and all that is in them, and rested the seventh day. Therefore Hashem blessed the Sabbath day and set it apart.
(12) “Respect your father and your mother, so that your days are prolonged upon the soil which Hashem your Elohim is giving you.
(13) “You do not murder.
(14) “You do not commit adultery.
(15) “You do not steal.
(16) “You do not bear false witness against your neighbor.
(17) “You do not covet your neighbor’s house, you do not covet your neighbor’s wife, nor his male servant, nor his female servant, nor his ox, nor his donkey, or whatever belongs to your neighbor.”
Again the Almighty is commanding to keep the Sabbath day. Why do you ask?
Genesis 2:2-3, “And on the seventh day Elohim completed His work which He had done, and He rested on the seventh day from all His work which He had made.
(3) And Elohim blessed the seventh day and set it apart, because on it He rested from all His work which Elohim in creating had made.”
Isaiah 58:13 “If you do turn back your foot from the Sabbath, from doing your pleasure on My set-apart day, and shall call the Sabbath ‘a delight,’ the set-apart day of Hashem ‘esteemed,’ and shall esteem it, not doing your own ways, nor finding your own pleasure, nor speaking your own words, then you shall delight yourself in Hashem. And I shall cause you to ride on the heights of the earth, and feed you with the inheritance of Ya’acoḇ your father. For the mouth of Hashem has spoken!”
Deuteronomy 5:12-15, ‘Guard the Sabbath day, to set it apart, as Hashem your Elohim commanded you.
(13) ‘Six days you labor, and shall do all your work,
(14) but the seventh day is a Sabbath of Hashem your Elohim. You do not do any work – you, nor your son, nor your daughter, nor your male servant, nor your female servant, nor your ox, nor your donkey, nor any of your cattle, nor your stranger who is within your gates, so that your male servant and your female servant rest as you do.
(15) ‘And you shall remember that you were a slave in the land of Mitsrayim, and that Hashem your Elohim brought you out from there by a strong hand and by an outstretched arm. Therefore Hashem your Elohim commanded you to observe the Sabbath day.
Leviticus 23:2-3, “Speak to the children of Yisra’el, and say to them, ‘The appointed times of Hashem, which you are to proclaim as set-apart gatherings, My appointed times, are these:
(3) ‘Six days work is done, but the seventh day is a Sabbath of rest, a set-apart gathering. You do no work, it is a Sabbath to Hashem in all your dwellings.
Again, the Sabbath is a commandment.
Throughout your generations. What does that mean? A perpetual statute or forever.
Now taking in to mind what forever means, “NEVERENDING.” That means that the Messiah did not say it was alright to change the Sabbath from 7th day to the 1st day. Nowhere in Scripture does it say or even allude to this. The Sabbath will always be the Sabbath. Even if there were no humans on this planet it would still be the Sabbath according to Genesis chapter two.
Now, why is the Sabbath so important to the Almighty?
1. Because HE rested on the 7th day and called it the Sabbath.
2. Because HE commanded us to observe the 7th day as Sabbath.
3. HE rewards us when we observe the 7th day as Sabbath.
Did Hashem create us for the Sabbath or the Sabbath for us?
He created the Sabbath for rest, recuperation and replenishment, so HE created the Sabbath for us.
So, what happens when we don’t observe the Sabbath?
Hashem said in Deuteronomy chapters 27 and 28, if you follow His decrees and statutes (commands) He will bless you. If not HE will curse you.
Christians today are influenced by dispensationalisim. What’s that you say? Dispensationalists believe that the “Old Testament” (Hebrew writings), are for the Jews only and the “New Testament” (Messianic writings) are for the Christians as if they were two different books and groups. As a Believer the books are ONE, just as Hashem is ONE. This is why most of the Christian churches insist that the commands were for the Jews only and not for the Christians.
Well, let’s look at the Book of Matthew:
Matthew 5:17-18, “Do not think that I came to destroy the Torah or the Prophets. I did not come to destroy but to complete. (Note: The Law and the Prophets is a term used for the pre-Messianic or Hebrew Scriptures.)
(18) “For truly, I say to you, till the heaven and the earth pass away, one jot or one tittle shall by no means pass from the Torah till all be done.(Note: Luke 16:17).
Matthew 5:19-20, “Whoever, then, breaks one of the least of these commands, and teaches men so, shall be called least in the reign of the heavens; but whoever does and teaches them, he shall be called great in the reign of the heavens.
(20) “For I say to you, that unless your righteousness exceeds that of the scribes and Pharisees, you shall by no means enter into the reign of the heavens. (Note: Matthew 15:3-9, Mark 7:7-13, John 7:19, Acts 7:53, Romans 2:23-27, Galatians 6:13).
What is the Messiah saying here?
Matthew 19:17, “And He said to him, “Why do you call Me good? No one is good except One – Elohim. But if you wish to enter into life, guard the commands.”(Note: See Luke 10:28, John 12:50, Revelation 22:14.)
Yahushua is telling us the same thing that Hashem is telling us, GUARD the COMMANDS.
So, what does guard the commands mean? To Obey, and to perform.
Now, back to Sabbath. What does it mean to observe the Sabbath? Again, to rest and have a day with Hashem, searching the Scriptures, for study and observation, to be with family and Hashem said to have a set-apart gathering. The Sabbath is to be regarded as different from the other six days. In Exodus chapter 20 verse eleven Hashem said: “Therefore Hashem blessed the Sabbath day and set it apart.”
He set it apart, or as in Hebrew KADOSH, which means set-apart or as the Christians call it “Holy.”
Everyone is expected to obey the commandments, nothing has changed in this if you are a Born Again Believer, or redeemed, if you have joined the family of Hashem the Kingdom of heaven from the good news of Yahushua HaMoshiach then you must obey the commandments and that includes the Sabbath or 7th day observance.
You do not have to join a manmade religion to observe Sabbath. Manmade you say? Christianity is a manmade religion. The Sabbath belongs to no man or religion, Hashem wants all mankind to observe the Sabbath.
Looking at Exodus chapter 20 verse 10: “You do not do any work – you, nor your son, nor your daughter, nor your male servant, nor your female servant, nor your cattle, nor your stranger who is within your gates.” Stranger or sojourner, as some translations say, is a non Jew or non tribe of Israel, in short Gentile. That includes everyone. We are bound to obey and glorify the Creator.
So, why is this day (the Sabbath) so obviously sacred to Hashem?
It is the eternal sign of His covenant with His people, Bnei Yisra’el. As such, our observance of it each week renews our devotion and commitment to His covenant with us, a renewal that honors Hashem. Ezekiel 20:12 re-iterates this concept. (And I also gave them My Sabbaths, to be a sign1 between them and Me, to know that I am Hashem who sets them apart.)
Our observance of Shabbat contributes heavily toward our every growing need to preserve our unique identity in the face of a hostile world. It is a statement we make every week that our Land, and ourselves belongs to the set-apart One of Israel - a truth for which we are sublimely and continually grateful.
Shabbat is the greatest day of the week and its observance is a gift of inestimable value.
Moses assembled the entire assembly of the children of Israel and said to them:
"These are the things that Hashem has commanded, to do them: On six days work may be done, but the seventh day shall be set-apart for you, a day of complete rest for Hashem; whoever does any work on it shall be put to death. You shall not kindle fire in any of your dwellings on the Shabbat." Exodus 35:1-3
In Genesis 2:1-3, Hashem completed His creation, blessed the seventh day and called it 'set-apart'. It is noteworthy that Shabbat - the 7th day - is the very FIRST thing in scripture that is designated as 'set-apart' and nowhere in subsequent scriptures is there any justification for so designating any other day of the week. Shabbat is Shabbat; there is no other.
The Sabbath was and is a cornerstone of Bnei Yisrael’s practice from earliest times as can be seen from the consistent mention of the Sabbath throughout the entire Scriptures. Its observance is legislated repeatedly in general terms (Exodus 20:8-11; 23:12; 31:12-17; Leviticus 23:3; Deuteronomy 5:12-15), and among the types of prohibited are included the gathering food, plowing and reaping, kindling a fire, and chopping wood (Exodus 16:29-30; 34:21; 35:3; Numbers 15:32-36). The positive specifications of Sabbath observance include giving rest to one's servants and animals (Exodus 20:10; 23:12; Deuteronomy 5:14).
Sabbath observance took on an added significance during the days of the prophets who were active shortly before and during the period of exile in Babylon. Jeremiah attached the very fate of Jerusalem to the observance of the Sabbath (Jeremiah 17:19-27; cf. Nehemiah 13:17-18). Ezekiel subscribes to the same line of thought in equating the Sabbath with all other commandments (Ezekiel 20:11-24).
Jeremiah 17:19-27, “Thus Hashem said to me, “Go and stand in the gate of the children of the people, by which the sovereigns of Yahudah come in and by which they go out, and in all the gates of Yerushalyim. (20) “And you shall say to them, ‘Hear the word of Hashem, you sovereigns of Yahudah, and all Yahudah, and all the inhabitants of Yerushalyim, who enter by these gates. (21) ‘Thus said Hashem, “Guard yourselves, and bear no burden on the Sabbath day, nor bring it in by the gates of Yerushalyim, (22) nor take a burden out of your houses on the Sabbath day, nor do any work. And you shall set apart the Sabbath day, as I commanded your fathers. (23) “But they did not obey, or incline their ear, and they made their neck stiff not to hear and not to receive instruction. (24) “And it shall be, if you diligently obey Me,” declares Hashem, “to bring in no burden through the gates of this city on the Sabbath day, and set apart the Sabbath day, to do no work in it, (25) then sovereigns and heads sitting on the throne of Daviḏ shall enter in through the gates of this city, riding in chariots and on horses, they and their heads – the men of Yahudah and the inhabitants of Yerushalyim. And this city shall be inhabited forever. (26) “And they shall come from the cities of Yahudah and from the places around Yerushalyim, and from the land of Binyamin and from the low country, from the mountains and from the South, bringing burnt offerings and slaughterings, grain offerings and incense, bringing offerings of praise to the House of Hashem. (27) “But if you do not obey Me to set apart the Sabbath day, and not to bear a burden when entering the gates of Yerushalyim on the Sabbath day, then I shall kindle a fire in its gates, and it shall consume the palaces of Yerushalyim, and not be quenched.” ’ ”
Nehemiah 13:17-18, “Then I contended with the nobles of Yahudah, and said to them, “What evil matter is this that you are doing, profaning the Sabbath day? (18) “Did not your fathers do the same so that our Elohim brought all this evil on us and on this city? Yet you bring added wrath on Yisra’el by profaning the Sabbath.”
Ezekiel 20:11-24, “And I gave them My laws and showed them My right-rulings, ‘which, if a man does, he shall live by them.’ (12) “And I also gave them My Sabbaths, to be a sign1 between them and Me, to know that I am Hashem who sets them apart. (Note: 1See Ex. 31:13-17.) (13) “But the house of Yisra’el rebelled against Me in the wilderness. They did not walk in My laws, and they rejected My right-rulings, which, if a man does, he shall live by them. And they greatly profaned My Sabbaths. Then I said I would pour out My wrath on them in the wilderness, to consume them. (14) “But I acted for My Name’s sake, not to profane it before the gentiles, before whose eyes I had brought them out. (15) “And I Myself also lifted My hand in an oath to them in the wilderness, not to bring them into the land which I had given them, flowing with milk and honey, the splendor of all lands, (16) because they rejected My right-rulings and did not walk in My laws, and they profaned My Sabbaths. For their heart went after their idols. (17) “And My eye pardoned them, from destroying them. And I did not make an end of them in the wilderness. (18) “And I said to their children in the wilderness, ‘Do not walk in the laws of your fathers, nor observe their rulings, nor defile yourselves with their idols. (19) ‘I am Hashem your Elohim. Walk in My laws, and guard My right-rulings, and do them. (20) ‘And set apart My Sabbaths, and they shall be a sign between Me and you, to know that I am Hashem your Elohim.’ (21) “But the children rebelled against Me. They did not walk in My laws, and My right-rulings they did not guard to do them, which, if a man does, he shall live by them. They profaned My Sabbaths, so I resolved to pour out My wrath on them to complete My displeasure against them in the wilderness. (22) “But I held back My hand and acted for My Name’s sake, not to profane it before the eyes of the gentiles, before whose eyes I had brought them out. (23) “Also, I Myself lifted My hand in an oath to those in the wilderness, to scatter them among the gentiles and disperse them throughout the lands, (24) because they had not done My right-rulings, and they rejected My laws, and they profaned My Sabbaths, and their eyes were on their fathers’ idols.
The prophecies in Isaiah 56:2-7 and 58:3-14 likewise single out the Sabbath as the primary commandment, observance of which will bring personal as well as national salvation. This is no small declaration and merits our serious attention, particularly in light of Isaiah 66:22-23 in which we read.
Isaiah 66:22-24 “For as the new heavens and the new earth that I make stand before Me,” declares Hashem, “so your seed and your name shall stand. (23) “And it shall be that from New Moon to New Moon, and from Sabbath to Sabbath, all flesh shall come to worship before Me,” declares Hashem. (24) “And they shall go forth and look upon the corpses of the men who have transgressed against Me. For their worm shall not die, and their fire not be quenched. And they shall be repulsive to all flesh!” (Note: See 24:6, 34:2-3, Ps. 110:6, Jer. 25:33.)
Think for a moment if our entire nation, the USA, was to be observing Sabbath what do you suppose Hashem would be doing for us?
1. Would our banks be going out of business: NO!
2. Would we be losing our homes: NO!
3. Would our economy be going up and down, mostly down: NO!
4. Would we have such a large welfare state: NO!
5. Would our leaders be trying to take all that we have: Well probably not.
6. Would we have been attacked by Al-Qaida: NO!
I know what you’re saying, that’s not controlled by us. Yes it is! Of course we must be following or guarding the commands of Hashem. It is “OUR” responsibility to follow what the Almighty commands us to do. As individuals observe then Hashem takes care of them, but as a nation, as was Bnei Yisrael, This is what Hashem wants. The Scriptures prophecies about wars, wars and rumors of wars, why? Because we don’t follow the Creators desires. But remember “for these have to take place, but the end is not yet.” As it says in Matthew 24:6.
Do you suppose that the “Sunday keepers” will be in the New Jerusalem as told in the book of Revelation? NO of course not! Why you say?
Let’s look at Scripture:
Numbers 15:30, ‘But the being who does whatever defiantly, whether he is native or a stranger, he reviles Hashem, and that being shall be cut off from among his people.”
Numbers 15:32-36, “And while the children of Yisra’el were in the wilderness, they found a man gathering sticks on the Sabbath day.
(33) And those who found him gathering sticks brought him to Mosheh and to Aharon, and to all the congregation.
(34) And they put him in under guard, because it had not been declared what should be done to him.
(35) And Hashem said to Mosheh, “The man shall certainly be put to death, all the congregation stoning him with stones outside the camp.”
(36) And all the congregation brought him outside the camp and stoned him with stones, as Hashem commanded Mosheh, and he died.”
Ezekiel chapter 20: “They did not walk in My laws, and they rejected My right-rulings, which, if a man does, he shall live by them. And they greatly profaned My Sabbaths. Then I said I would pour out My wrath on them in the wilderness, to consume them.”
“because they rejected My right-rulings and did not walk in My laws, and they profaned My Sabbaths. For their heart went after their idols.”
Ezekiel 20:21, “But the children rebelled against Me. They did not walk in My laws, and My right-rulings they did not guard to do them, which, if a man does, he shall live by them. They profaned My Sabbaths, so I resolved to pour out My wrath on them to complete My displeasure against them in the wilderness.”
(14) “Blessed are those doing His commands, so that the authority shall be theirs unto the tree of life, and to enter through the gates into the city. (Notes: See Matthew 19:17. Long before the books were compiled to form “The New Testament,” Rev. 22:14 was quoted, as it is here given, by Tertullian (CE 208), and by Cyprian (CE 251) – see the well-known Antenicene Fathers.)
(15) “But outside are the dogs and those who enchant with drugs, and those who whore, and the murderers, and the idolaters, and all who love and do falsehood. (Note: See 21:27, 2 Thess. 2:11.)
Ok, now the Scriptures talk about Sabbaths, that’s plural, many have no idea about what that means:
Leviticus 23:4-7, ‘These are the appointed times of Hashem, set-apart gatherings which you are to proclaim at their appointed times.
(5) ‘In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month, between the evenings, is the Passover to Hashem.
(6) ‘And on the fifteenth day of this month is the Festival of Unleavened Bread to Hashem – seven days you eat unleavened bread.
(7) ‘On the first day you have a set-apart gathering, you do no servile work.
Leviticus 23:8, ‘And you shall bring an offering made by fire to Hashem for seven days. On the seventh day is a set-apart gathering, you do no servile work.’ ”
Leviticus 23:21, ‘And on this same day you shall proclaim a set-apart gathering for yourselves, you do no servile work on it – a law forever in all your dwellings throughout your generations.” (Shavuot)
Leviticus 23:24-25, “Speak to the children of Yisra’el, saying, ‘In the seventh month, on the first day of the month, you have a rest, a remembrance of blowing of trumpets, a set-apart gathering.
(25) ‘You do no servile work, and you shall bring an offering made by fire to Hashem.’ ”
(27) “On the tenth day of this seventh month is the Day of Atonement. It shall be a set-apart gathering for you. And you shall afflict your beings, and shall bring an offering made by fire to Hashem.
(28) “And you do no work on that same day, for it is the Day of Atonement, to make atonement for you before Hashem your Elohim.
Leviticus 23:31-32, “You do no work – a law forever throughout your generations in all your dwellings.
(32) ‘It is a Sabbath of rest to you, and you shall afflict your beings. On the ninth day of the month at evening, from evening to evening, you observe your Sabbath.”
(34) “Speak to the children of Yisra’el, saying, ‘On the fifteenth day of this seventh month is the Festival of Booths for seven days to Hashem.
(35) ‘On the first day is a set-apart gathering, you do no servile work. (SUKKOT)
(39) ‘On the fifteenth day of the seventh month, when you gather in the fruit of the land, observe the festival of Hashem for seven days. On the first day is a rest, and on the eighth day a rest.
These are commanded Sabbaths other than the weekly Sabbaths. The first day of unleavened bread is a Sabbath, the 7th day of this feast is a Sabbath, and Shavuot is a Sabbath and the first of the 7th month is a Sabbath and the Day of Atonement or Yom Kippur is a Sabbath and the first day of Sukkot and the 7th day of Sukkot are both Sabbaths. Known as Feasts Sabbaths.
Now maybe you noticed that it says; A LAW FOREVER. I don’t know what your explanation of forever is, but I believe that means, just as it says, FOREVER.
“from Merriam-Webster dictionary:
\fə-rev-ər, fȯ-; Southern often fə-e-və\
1 : for a limitless time 2 : at all times : continually”
As also in the Scriptures; as an ETERNAL decree.
Now, to me FOREVER and ETERNAL decree seems that Hashem meant what HE said. At no time would these decrees vanish, or be terminated.
The Ten principles of living. What’s that you say? The Ten principles of living, (Ten Commandments), were given at Mt. Sinai to, as most will claim, the Jews. Oh! You mean there were no others there? Let’s look at that:
Exodus 12:37-38, “And the children of Yisra’el set out from Ra’meses to Sukkoth, about six hundred thousand men on foot, besides the little ones.
(38) And a mixed multitude went up with them too, also flocks and herds, very much livestock.”
A mixed multitude is that which was not of the 12 tribes of Yisrael.
Ok back to the ten principles of living, or the Ten Commandments, were given at Mt Sinai as a guide line for all mankind to live and live abundantly. You may have heard that for the non-Jews that the seven Noahide laws must be followed. I don’t disagree, because the seven Nohaide laws were the pre-curser to the Ten Principles given at Mt. Sinai.
1. Prohibition of Idolatry: You shall not have any idols before Hashem.
2. Prohibition of Murder: You shall not murder.
3. Prohibition of Theft: You shall not steal.
4. Prohibition of Sexual Promiscuity: You shall not commit adultery.
5. Prohibition of Blasphemy: You shall not blaspheme Hashem's name.
6. Dietary Law: Do not eat flesh taken from an animal while it is still alive.
7. Requirement to have just Laws: You shall set up an effective judiciary to enforce the preceding six laws fairly.
So, where is the law of Sabbath in here? When the children of Yisrael turned their backs on Hashem and went to idol worship, this is when they profaned the Sabbath. By not keeping or observing the Sabbath you become idol worshipers and this is an abomination before Hashem. That’s right, Christians are idol worshipers!
(6) “On that day I lifted My hand in an oath to them, to bring them out of the land of Mitsrayim into a land that I had searched out for them, flowing with milk and honey, the splendor of all lands.
(7) “And I said to them, ‘Each one of you, throw away the abominations which are before his eyes, and do not defile yourselves with the idols of Mitsrayim! I am Hashem your Elohim.’
(8) “But they rebelled against Me, and would not obey Me. All of them did not throw away the abominations which were before their eyes, nor did they forsake the idols of Mitsrayim. So I resolved to pour out My wrath on them to complete My displeasure against them in the midst of the land of Mitsrayim.
(9) “But I acted for My Name’s sake, that it should not be profaned before the eyes of the gentiles among whom they were – before whose eyes I had made Myself known to them, to bring them out of the land of Mitsrayim.
(10) “So I took them out of the land of Mitsrayim, and I brought them into the wilderness.
(11) “And I gave them My laws and showed them My right-rulings, ‘which, if a man does, he shall live by them.’
(12) “And I also gave them My Sabbaths, to be a sign between them and Me, to know that I am Hashem who sets them apart. (Note: See Exodus 31:13-17.)
(13) “But the house of Yisra’el rebelled against Me in the wilderness. They did not walk in My laws, and they rejected My right-rulings, which, if a man does, he shall live by them. And they greatly profaned My Sabbaths. Then I said I would pour out My wrath on them in the wilderness, to consume them.
(14) “But I acted for My Name’s sake, not to profane it before the gentiles, before whose eyes I had brought them out.
(15) “And I Myself also lifted My hand in an oath to them in the wilderness, not to bring them into the land which I had given them, flowing with milk and honey, the splendor of all lands,
(16) because they rejected My right-rulings and did not walk in My laws, and they profaned My Sabbaths. For their heart went after their idols.
Many will say that is just for the “Old Testament” and not for the “New Testament” because the Messiah did away with this. What did the Messiah do on each of the Sabbaths that we read in the Scriptures? OBSERVING the Sabbath. Men, even at that time of the first century C.E., were trying to change the way of observing the Sabbath. Yet the Messiah observed the Sabbath as did His ancestors. He would never have profaned the Sabbath, and He showed this in the Book of Yahanan (John).
John 2:13-16, “And the Passover of the Yahudim was near, and Yahushua went up to Yerushalyim.
(14) And He found in the Set-apart Place those selling oxen and sheep and doves, and the moneychangers sitting.
(15) And having made a whip of cords, He drove them all out of the Set-apart Place, with the sheep and the oxen, and poured out the moneychangers’ coins and overturned the tables.
(16) And He said to those selling doves, “Take these away! Do not make the house of My Father a house of merchandise!”
What does this have to do with the Sabbath you say?
Jeremiah 17:21-22, ‘Thus said Hashem, “Guard yourselves, and bear no burden on the Sabbath day, nor bring it in by the gates of Yerushalyim,
(22) nor take a burden out of your houses on the Sabbath day, nor do any work. And you shall set apart the Sabbath day, as I commanded your fathers.
(27) “But if you do not obey Me to set apart the Sabbath day, and not to bear a burden when entering the gates of Yerushalyim on the Sabbath day, then I shall kindle a fire in its gates, and it shall consume the palaces of Yerushalyim, and not be quenched.” ’ ”
This is also talking about the Set-apart place and where they congregate on Sabbath.
The Sabbath day is to be used to reflect upon Hashem as our Elohim and Creator of this universe. This is why Hashem said in Genesis chapter two:
Genesis 2:3, “And Elohim blessed the seventh day and set it apart, because on it He rested from all His work which Elohim in creating had made.”
What is an ELOHIM? In Hebrew (MiELA) Alef, Lamed, Hei, Yod, Mem. ELOHIM, reading right to left, meaning MASTER.
I have never been able to find in the Scriptures where the Sabbath was changed from the 7th day to the 1st day of the week. Many try to use that when the Messiah was resurrected it was the first day of the week and that is what Scripture says, however, it never said that the Sabbath was changed to the 1st day of the week. Constantine ordered that the people not observe Passover but to observe “Easter” as it says “The Lords Day”, or the Day of the Sun. They did this again because the Messiah was resurrected on the 1st day of the week and Constantine changed the Sabbath from the 7th day to the 1st day using this as the justification.
MANS DOCTRINE! From WIKIPEDIA:
“Christian tradition: “In the majority of Christendom, "Sabbath" is a synonym of "Lord's Day" (Sunday), which is kept in commemoration of the resurrection of Christ. It is often the day of rest, and usually the day of communal worship. The Lord's Day is considered both the first day and the "eighth day" of the seven-day week (or, in some calendars, Sunday is designated the seventh day of the week). Relatively few Christians regard first-day observance as entailing all of the ordinances of the Jewish Sabbath. The related Latter Day Saint movement generally follows the stronger Christian Sabbatarian traditions, avoiding shopping, leisure activities, and idleness on the first day, and avoiding work unless absolutely necessary. Sometimes the Lord's Day is observed by those who believe the Sabbath corresponds to Saturday but is obsolete; and in Oriental Orthodoxy, the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church has observed both a Sunday Lord's Day and a Saturday Sabbath for several centuries. As another minority view, some modern Christians uphold a Sabbath but do not limit its observance to either Saturday or Sunday, instead advocating rest on any chosen day of the week, or advocating the Sabbath as instead a symbolic metaphor for rest in Christ.
In several Christian denominations, the Sabbath is kept in similar manner as in Judaism, but observance ends at Saturday sunset instead of Saturday nightfall. Some even use the 6PM to 6Pm observance. Seventh Day Baptists have found the Sabbath an important part of their beliefs and practices since the mid-17th century, also informing the doctrine of the similar but larger Seventh-day Adventist group in the mid-19th century. They and others believe that keeping the seventh-day Sabbath is a moral obligation arising out of the Ten Commandments that honors God as Creator and Deliverer. They also use "Lord's Day" to mean the seventh day, based on Scriptures in which God calls it "my day" and "of the LORD".
Adventists originally formally identified the problem of defining Sabbath worldwide on a round earth; some seventh-day Sabbatarians make use of the International Date Line, while others observe Sabbath according to Jerusalem time instead of local time. Many of the Lemba in southern Africa, like some other African tribes, are Christians yet claim common descent from the Jewish people, keep one day a week holy like the Jewish Sabbath, and have many beliefs and practices linked to Judaism.”
Let’s look one more time at times:
Leviticus 23:32, ‘It is a Sabbath of rest to you, and you shall afflict your beings. On the ninth day of the month at evening, from evening to evening, you observe your Sabbath.”
This is the only time in Scripture that uses the phrase evening to evening; what does that entail?
עֶרֶב Ayin, Resh, Bet. Ereb = Meaning dusk to dusk. This refers to when the sun has dipped just below the horizon. Many insist on from night fall or when three stars are visible in the heavens.
1 Chronicles 23:30-31, “and to stand every morning to thank and praise Hashem, and so at evening;
(31) and for all the burnt offerings to Hashem on the Sabbaths and on the New Moons and on the appointed times, by number according to the right-ruling upon them, continually before Hashem;”
2 Chronicles 8:12-13, “Then Shelomoh offered burnt offerings to Hashem on the altar of Hashem which he had built before the porch,
(13) even as the duty of every day required, offering according to the command of Mosheh, for the Sabbaths, and for the New Moons, and for the appointed times three times a year: the Festival of Unleavened Bread, and the Festival of Weeks, and the Festival of Booths.
Exodus 31:13-17, “And you, speak to the children of Yisra’el, saying, ‘My Sabbaths you are to guard, by all means, for it is a sign between Me and you throughout your generations, to know that I, Hashem, am setting you apart.
(14) ‘And you shall guard the Sabbath, for it is set-apart to you. Everyone who profanes it shall certainly be put to death, for anyone who does work on it, that being shall be cut off from among his people.
(15) ‘Six days work is done, and on the seventh is a Sabbath of rest, set-apart to Hashem. Everyone doing work on the Sabbath day shall certainly be put to death.
(16) ‘And the children of Yisra’el shall guard the Sabbath, to observe the Sabbath throughout their generations as an everlasting covenant.
(17) ‘Between Me and the children of Yisra’el it is a sign forever. For in six days Hashem made the heavens and the earth, and on the seventh day He rested and was refreshed.’ ”
The Sabbath is set-apart; it is to be kept set-apart to Hashem. It belongs to the Almighty and if you follow the Almighty then you must observe the Sabbath as set-apart to the Almighty. The only sign of Hashem setting us apart, the only sign of the everlasting covenant, is His Sabbaths, one of them being the seventh day Sabbath. This is repeated in Ezek. 20:12 & 20.
Ezekiel 20:20, ‘And set apart My Sabbaths, and they shall be a sign between Me and you, to know that I am Hashem your Elohim.’
So, does the Sabbath matter? It does to the Almighty Hashem Tzevauot
Understand, no power on earth, church denomination, man, pope, position, or even Satan can change Hashem's Law. Any who try are *usurping Hashem's authority and guess what folks……YOU CAN’T DO IT!!!!
If you don’t have fear for Elohim then you don’t have love for Hashem. If you don’t have love for Hashem then you do not have The Creator, if you don’t have El Shaddai, then all you have is the Catholic Church and Satan for your Ba’al!!!
Isaiah 14:11-15, ‘Your arrogance has been brought down to the grave, and the sound of your stringed instruments; the maggot is spread under you, and worms cover you.’ (12) “How you have fallen from the heavens, O Helel, son of the morning! You have been cut down to the ground, you who laid low the gentiles! (13) “For you have said in your heart, ‘Let me go up to the heavens, let me raise my throne above the stars of El, and let me sit in the mount of meeting on the sides of the north; (14) let me go up above the heights of the clouds, let me be like the Most High.’ (15) “But you are brought down to the grave, to the sides of the Pit.
William Morris, editor, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, New College Edition, Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, 1976
Webster's Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language, Portland House, New York, 1989
William Matthew O'Neil, Time and the Calendars, Sydney University Press, 1975
- JAMES G. MICHY, "Commentary on the Book of Exodus," comments on Exodus 20: 8-11.
Catechism of the Catholic Church - English Translation 2nd edition 1997
Scriptures 98, Instituted for Scripture Research, South Africa